Q423. What is the difference between direct emitters, suppliers, and CO2 injection facilities?

A423. The GHGRP collects data from three types of entities: Direct emitters, suppliers, and facilities that inject CO2.

  • "Direct emitters" are facilities that combust fuels or otherwise put GHGs into the atmosphere directly from their facility.  An example of this is a power plant that burns coal or natural gas and emits carbon dioxide directly into the atmosphere.  EPA estimates that the GHGRP data reported by direct emitters covers about half of total U.S. emissions.  Subparts C-II, SS and TT are for direct emitters.
  • "Suppliers" are those entities that supply products into the economy which if combusted, released or oxidized emit greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.  These fuels and industrial gases are not emitted from the supplier facility but instead distributed throughout the country and used.  An example of this is gasoline, which is sold in the U.S. and primarily burned in cars throughout the country.  The majority of GHG emissions associated with the transportation, residential and commercial sectors are accounted for by these suppliers. Subparts LL-QQ are for suppliers.
  • "CO2 Injection facilities" comprise any well or group of wells that inject a CO2 stream into the subsurface.  An example is a CO2 injection well established to pump CO2 underground to enhance oil recovery.  Subpart UU covers injection of CO2 and Subpart RR covers geologic sequestration of CO2.

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