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Q800. What factors influence reported greenhouse gas trends?


A800. Observed trends in greenhouse gas emissions reported to the EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP) are due to a variety of factors. Reported emissions may increase due to:

  • Opening of new plants.
  • Start-up of new processes.
  • Alterations or enhancements to manufacturing processes that expand production capacity, such as plant changes that remove process bottlenecks.
  • Increased production by existing plants to meet increased market demand.

Reported emissions may decrease due to:

  • Process improvements, including changes in fuels and inputs.
  • Closing of existing plants.
  • Permanent shutdown of production units or processes lines.
  • Reduced production due to downturns in market demand.
  • Temporary plant and process shutdowns due to equipment failure, plant modification projects, or other events (e.g., COVID-19 pandemic).
  • Reporters exiting the GHGRP under the provisions of 40 CFR 98.2(i).*

Trends in the reported emissions for some industry sectors are also impacted by rule changes made by the EPA to improve data quality, broaden coverage of the reported data, or simplify emission calculations.


* Facilities and suppliers are allowed to cease reporting if their reported carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) is below 15,000 metric tons per year for three consecutive years or below 25,000 metric tons per year for five consecutive years.


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