Q833. What factors influenced the trend in emissions for refineries?
A833. Reported emissions in the Refineries sector remained relatively consistent from 2011 to 2017. Reported emissions decreased from 178 MMT CO2e in 2011 to 177 MMT CO2e in 2017, a decrease of less than one percent. Emissions reached their lowest point during the time-series in 2012 at 173 MMT CO2e, increased to a high of 179 MMT CO2e in 2016, and decreased to 177 MMT CO2e in 2017. From 2011 to 2017, production (measured as gross input to atmospheric crude oil distillation units) increased by 10.5 percent, meaning emissions per unit production decreased by 10 percent. Emissions per unit production have decreased due to shifts in production to more efficient refineries and/or implementation of energy efficiency projects (including flare gas recovery) at existing refineries. While the number of reporting facilities decreased slightly (from 150 in 2011 to 144 in 2017) because some facilities were no longer required to report, overall operating capacity (measured in thousand barrels per calendar day) increased by 6.8 percent. Expanded production at existing refineries more than made up for the production lost from refineries that closed or otherwise stopped reporting.
 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Petroleum Supply Annual (accessed August 30, 2018) at: http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_unc_dcu_nus_a.htm.
 CFR Part 98 §98.2(i)(1) and (2) describe provisions under which a facility may discontinue reporting.